Eliminating Homework: No More Tears, No More Dirty Looks

This year I eliminated homework. No worksheets, short responses, or essays sent home. No more tears. And no backlash. No stress. More family time. Less anxiety. All work is done in class.

I request students read for at least 30 minutes a night a text of their choosing. I tell them that to become better readers we need to read more. I offer an Article of the Week (AoW) with a written reflection based on their reading for students looking for additional reading and writing practice, but the AoW is not graded. Students earn game points for completing the Article of the Week and reflection. The game points students earn unlock privileges: extended time on in class assignments, passes on notebook checks, or even having their teacher tell them if the quiz question they answered is incorrect while taking the quiz. Sometimes I might even bring in a sweet treat for those who have earned 2,000+ game points.

In response, my students tell me that they feel as if “the pressure is off” when there is no homework. The work that they do in class is their work – not their parents or tutors or copied from friends. Researchers, such as Alfie Kohn (2006) state that there is little or no benefit to giving homework and that it does not really lead to improved academic performance.

My eighth grade students are bombarded with homework in their other classes in addition to the countless after school activities and sports commitments they have. I have had my students tell me that they sometimes have sports practice or a game until 9:30 PM! Sleep and spending time with one’s family are essential during adolescence for brain development and one’s social-emotional intelligence. Homework only gets in the way of that.

I write this post as both a teacher and a parent of elementary school aged children. This past week I spent two and a half hours for three consecutive nights at the kitchen table with my fifth grader as he wrote up a science lab he did in class. Together we talked through the procedures and conclusion of his investigation. I watched him erase and rewrite countless times to get the words right. As he continued to get frustrated and cry, I tried to hold back my own tears as I told him that what he had written was good enough.  My son told me how much he hated this project and never wants to do a science experiment again. This homework assignment lacked any benefit in the long run. I did email to his teacher and included the following:

As a teacher of middle school students the amount of anxiety that I am seeing in my school among my students is upsetting to me. I am beginning to see the same anxiety in M***. He wants to succeed and do well and school is challenging. Sitting for almost 6 hours a day is challenging. We have hired a tutor to work with him and give him more individual time to go over his math which he struggles to grasp. His father and I tell him everyday to do his personal best, that is all that matters. We want M*** to be happy with himself. School makes that hard to do.
A fifteen year old boy in our community killed himself earlier this week. M*** knew him through our Temple. No one knows why he killed himself. As a parent, this is our worst nightmare.
When I am sitting at the kitchen table with M***while he writes and erases countless times on his science report to get the words right I tell him do your best. I encourage him. I try to combat his feelings of insecurity when he doubts himself. I hope that you can see M*** as someone who not only struggles in school but as a person who needs a boost of confidence from time to time and for you to point out when he is doing something right. Also, moving forward I hope that you will be considerate that many of your students have activities after school and two hours or more of homework defeats family time and bedtime curfews.


Weigh in on this debate. Where do you stand? Please share your thoughts in the comments section of this blog post.

Need more information check out the following links:

The Case For and Against Homework by Robert J. Marzano and Debra J. Pickering (ACSD, 2007)

Homework vs. No Homework is the Wrong Question to Ask (Edutopia, 2015)

The Homework Wars (The Atlantic, 2013)

The Homework Debate: One Teacher’s Perspective (Cycle of Learning Blog, 2015)


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What is truly genius? Overcoming Genius Hour Hurdles


For the past two and a half years genius hour has been 20% of class time each week. Every Friday is genius hour. Monday through Thursday I might be teaching and focusing on supporting my students as reader, writers, and critical thinkers; Friday is for students to pursue their own passions and interests. Genius hour allows for students to take ownership of the classroom and their own learning.

After the first year of introducing genius hour into my classroom and being inundated with baking and cooking projects, the following year I required students’ projects to be about something they cared about and at the same time take on some aspect of social responsibility. Students created blogs, researched, and initiated projects that addressed issues they cared about from health, environmental concerns, animal and human rights. All of the projects that my students created were inspiring and supported a culture of caring on a community level.

This year, I introduced genius hour with the same requirements and told my students their projects should fit under one of the following categories.

MasterPractice some skill. It takes 10,000 hours to get to mastery.

CreateUse your imagination to create something.

LearnGain knowledge about something that interests you or learn something new.

InnovateSolve a problem. Create a solution.

Produce – Make something.

Serve – Do any of the above for someone else.

But this year, these community-involved citizens have turned up short and my students ideas are so focused on the “positive benefit to the community” that they lack passion and genius. More than two dozen of my students have wanted to create a school wide drive for collecting pet supplies, used sports equipment, food, school supplies, blankets and coats. It is not clear to me whether these collections are driven by passion or are just to fulfill the requirements of another school project. In fact, when two students went to ask my school principal to hold a coat drive, her response was “Does a coat drive warrant true genius?” She later pulled me into her office for a conversation on whether I was spending too much time on genius hour and do I tell my students their “passion project” lacks “genius.” My response was, “No” and “No.”

I have been reflecting on these musings for two weeks now. After two students presented their semester genius hour reflection on how they collected clothes for the salvation army, I thought “Where had I gone wrong with genius hour this year?” My intentions was inquiry based learning that nurture students social awareness and social responsibility. The result was boxes of supplies to those in need. But it is clear to me that many of these projects showed their ability to help the community but did lack true genius.

I am in a state of reflection and revision. I am rethinking the requirements and going to have my students design a rubric in which to evaluate the genius process and product to help us engage in a critical conversation on passion and genius.





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Nonfiction Notice & Note Signposts: An Interactive Foldable

When Kylene Beers and Robert Probst published Notice and Note: Strategies for Close Reading (2012), I knew I had stumbled upon an essential text for teaching close reading. I designed an interactive foldable with the six signposts for fiction and every September, I teach my students the signposts. With every fictional text we read, we identify the signposts, discuss how the signposts lead to deeper comprehension of the text, and understand the author’s intentions.

Needless to say, when I heard Beers and Probst were publishing Reading Nonfiction: Notice & Note Stances, Signposts, and Strategies (2015), I preordered the book knowing I would include these “new signpost” with my repertoire for teaching nonfiction reading. As I am about to embark on a nonfiction unit of study with my students focusing on reading and writing investigative journalism pieces that are a hybrid of narrative and argumentative writing, I will introduce the nonfiction signpost and helping students to see “deeply into informational texts” and think critically about the moves that writers make.

The five nonfiction signposts are:

Contrasts and Contradictions: The author presents something that contrasts with or contradicts what the reader is likely to know, think,or have experienced, or shows a difference between two or more situations, events, or perspectives.

Extreme or Absolute Language: The author uses language that leaves no doubt about a situation or event, the perhaps exaggerates or overstates a case.

Numbers and Stats: The author uses numbers or words that show amounts of statistical information to show comparison in order to prove a point or help create an image.

Quoted Words: The author quote others, directly, with what we are calling a Voice of Authority or Personal Perspective. The author might also list others in citations.

Word Gaps: The author uses words or phrases that students recognize they don’t know.

I have designed an interactive foldable for my students that front loads the five nonfiction signposts. Students can continuously refer back to the foldable in their Interactive English Notebooks. The foldable includes a list of the five signposts with definitions, anchor questions to help think carefully each signpost, and signal words to help identify the signposts. The purpose in designing this foldable is to help students navigate complex nonfiction texts and question the text in a way that encourages student to be critical consumers of information.

To grab a copy of this foldable and instructions click here.

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What did you ask? Driving Questions for Critical Thinking

Driving questions guide curriculum and steer student learning. As teachers, we need to step back and think about the types of questions that we ask in our classroom. Do our questions “elicit student reflection and challenge deeper student engagement?” (Danielson, 1996) Or are the questions lower level questions that require students to recite and recall basic knowledge and information? Carefully crafted questions synthesize, evaluate, and require students to reflect on their understanding.

Driving Questions should be:

  • Provocative – Interesting to hold students’ attention and challenging to inspire students to go beyond the surface
  • Open-ended – Has more than one answer and requires students to use their higher order thinking skills and synthesis of different types of information
  • Complex & Challenging – Encourages students to examine ideas new to them, encourages questioning and risk taking
  • Linked to the core of what you want students to learn and consistent with standards

(From 8 Essential For Project Based Learning by John Larmer and John R. Mergendoller)

Question Starters are effective for students and teachers. Most students are familiar with the question words who, what, where, when, why, and how. To help students begin to formulate higher level questions, extend the stems that initiate and focus the inquiry. Examples include:

  • What caused…?
  • What are the characteristics of…?
  • What if…?
  • What does the author mean when…?
  • Would you agree that…?
  • Would it be better if…?

In my quest to design thick, text dependent, driving questions I created a reading challenge for my students that builds on Bloom’s Taxonomy questioning. Students worked with partners during class time to answer the questions about their reading of dystopian fiction.  Students earned Classcraft Game points for all the questions they answered correctly with depth and textual evidence.








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Close Reading Lessons Learned From Star Wars & Game of Thrones Diehards


Images from http://blastmagazine.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/star-wars-1.jpg

My colleague has seen Star Wars: The Force Awakens four times over the past three weeks since opening night. During our daily lunch duty we have been talking about our interpretations and thoughts on the movie. Intrigued by his diehard interest in seeing the movie four times, I asked him what he looks for with each viewing. Here is what he told me:

First Viewing – Get the Gist of the Story, Make Connections, Ask Questions

Second Viewing – Dig Deeper, Make Inferences and Predictions

Third Viewing – Pay attention to Editing, Color, Symbolism, Foreshadowing

Fourth Viewing – Listen closely to music for more symbolism, foreshadowing, and confirm predictions for the next film.

The more he talked about his different viewings I realized I do the same thing with Game of Thrones. I watch the episode the night it first airs for understanding, making connections from previous episodes and the books, and posing questions. The next day I talk about my first viewing with all my colleagues, and then between the night the show airs and the next episode, I might watch again or even twice for a reread. In my second and third reading I pay closer attention to match on match edits, colors, and catching events and mannerisms I might have missed in the first read. I guess I can credit HBO with helping me to hone my close reading skills.

Close reading is a buzz word that has bombarded every English teacher since the introduction of the Common Core Learning Standards. The reality is that many Star Wars and Game of Thrones diehard fans are close reading experts who our students can model and mentor.

In Grant Wiggins’ blog post on close reading (May 17, 2013) he defines close reading as a “disciplined re-reading of inherently complex and worthy texts.” Wiggins goes on to includes Nancy Boyles’ definition, “Essentially, close reading means reading to uncover layers of meaning that lead to deep comprehension.” He includes a quote from Tim Shanahan why close reading is necessary, “Because challenging texts do not give up their meanings easily, it is essential that readers re-read such texts.”

So here ELA teachers are trying to get students to peel back to the layers of the texts utilized in classrooms and many students might already be doing this with their fan favorite texts whether it be The Regular Show on Cartoon Network or the entire Star Wars collection. We must tap into our student’s fan favorites and identify the close reading habits already mastered. Then, teachers can introduce additional thinking habits that will uncover new information, inspire the desire to learn more, and allow students to become Jedi Knights of interrogating texts.




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Looking Forward to 2016 by Reflecting on 2015

This past year has been a whirlwind professionally. I delved into the world of #gamification, attended a plethora of conferences expanding connections and teaching ideas. As a teacher, I selfishly love to learn and sharing knowledge with others.

Below are the highlights of the conferences I presented and guest blog posts I wrote in 2015.

Get Your Game On guest blog post for ISTE Project ReimaginED.

Gamification Webinar for ISTE

Your Students Are Your Best Resource for Gamification guest blog post for Classcraft

Utilizing Interactive Notebooks to Support ELLs your Classroom  a workshop for NYS TESOL Annual Conference

Unpacking Race in To Kill a Mockingbird a presentation for Critical Questions in Education Conference in Baltimore, MD.

Tech Based Alternative Assessments in Lieu of Book Reports & 5 Paragraph Essays presented at ILA in St. Louis, MO

Twitter in the K12 Classroom: A Collaborative Tool for Learning Webinar presented for ISTE

Attaining Common Core Reading & Writing Standards with Interactive Notebooks presentation for Long Island LILAC/NRC Conference

And lots more to look forward to in 2016: ISTE, ILA, NCTE and other awesome conferences, EdCamps, and professional development opportunities.

#ISTELitChat is going to be awesome in 2016 with new guest moderators. We meet the last Sunday of each month at 9 PM, just type in the hashtag #ISTELitChat in Twitter to join us.

Wishing everyone a happy and healthy 2016 and look forward to learning, growing, and collaborating together.



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Get Your Game On: Boost Content Area Learning with Gamification Guest Blog Post for Project ReimaginED – ISTE

The following post was written and published for ISTE Project ReimaginED.

Gamification is about transforming the classroom environment and regular activities into a game. There are numerous ways to bring games and game playing into the content area classroom to promote learning and deepen student understanding. Whether teachers are looking to bring in some aspect of gaming into their class or utilize a game platform across the curriculum, they can bring in elements of gamification to enhance learning and student engagement, tap into Common Core State Standards (CCSS), and attain ISTE Standards.

I first gamified my middle school English class last year and I have continued this quest for a second consecutive year. The response from my students has been positive and enthusiastic. Participation has increased among my students and students are inclined to do additional work for the game. Within my classroom I have eliminated homework grades in lieu of game points and on a weekly basis I have students battle each other for powers and privileges. Privileges include asking the Gamemaster (aka, the teacher) if her/his answer to a question is correct on a test and getting an extension on an assignment. Students earn points by being positive and hardworking in class, correctly answering a question in class, or helping another student. At the same time, students can also lose points by disrupting the class or coming to class unprepared. I am currently using Class Craft, an awesome gaming platform that has allowed me to turn my classroom into a role playing adventure. My students sign a “Hero Pact” which articulates the rules and goals of the game and they have Avatars. As the Gamemaster, I am able to customize the rules to fit my students needs.

Good gamification promotes problem solving and collaboration and failure is an essential source of feedback and learning.  Gamification is not worksheets for points; facts and information are used as tools for learning and assessment. Effective games are customized to different learners and  students are encouraged to take risks and seek alternative solutions. In classrooms today, it’s not only about learning content material. Students must experience and build the necessary skills to be creators, innovators, and problem solvers in order to develop critical thinking and improve academic achievement.

Here are some ideas to promote transformative learning experiences with gamification.

Collaboration & Teamwork

The Beatles sang, “I get by with a little help from my friends,” and I transfer this principle to my classroom with gamification. Learning is not an isolated task. When students work collaboratively, there is more ownership of the material and more opportunities to contribute in class.  In my classroom students are assigned a team. Each team comprises four or five students, depending on the class size. Students work both independently and cooperatively within our gaming structure to earn powers than unlock privileges. Because I teach English, the team names are based on genres, authors, and book titles from Young Adult Literature. For example, in one class,  team names are based on current fantasy based young adult literature—Potter, Eregon, Everlost, and Land of Nod—and in another class team names are based on contemporary YA dystopian texts—5th Wave, Divergent, Legend, Matrix, and Rook.  Teachers can have students pick their own team names for ownership in the game.

ISTE Standards for Students #2, Creativity and Innovation, states: “Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively … to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.” Working collaboratively helps students enhance their oral communication skills and meet the Common Core State Standards for Speaking and Listening (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.1). Students meet this CCSS by working in cooperative groups and teams, and then participating in “conversations and collaborations with diverse partners.” Teamwork and collaboration requires students to listen to one another and broaden their roles as dominant speakers in the classroom, rather than a teacher presenting and students only listening. As teammates, students “work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.” (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.9-10.1.B) Working with student teams also requires teachers to model and practice how to work well with one another and resolve conflicts in positive ways addressing ISTE Standards for Teachers  1.d: “Model collaborative knowledge construction by engaging in learning with students, colleagues, and others in face-to-face and virtual environments.”

Challenges & Quests

Design a quest or challenge that sparks learning and engagement. While my students are reading Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird, I have them complete a “Mockingbird Amazing Race” QR Code Quest. Each team of students is given a map with QR codes that takes them around the school to complete text based activities. Students use their mobile devices to read the QR Codes at the different stations and complete the challenges. I designed the Mockingbird Amazing Race for students to “apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and synthesize information” (ISTE Standards for Students #3, Research and Information Fluency) about the text and and standards.

World History teacher Michael Matera uses simulations as a teaching tool with his sixth grade students. He designed a China Silk Road Simulation to bring to life entrepreneurship, supply and demand, the power of negotiation, and the costs and benefits of technology for society. He describes all the ingredients and directions for the simulation on his blog. The goal of the simulation is to have a rich product diversity without conflict. Throughout the simulation, Matera stops to ask questions to the groups about their choices and their connections to the learning objectives.

Leveling Up

Some students are motivated by badges or points. In my classroom, points unlock powers. Powers are important features that represent privileges players earn as they progress in the game. Some powers are cooperative where others only benefit the individual player. With Class Craft, players must level up to earn Power Points so that they can unlock new powers. Once a power has been learned, they can use it for the rest of the game. Some individual powers have nothing to do with English but they are still fun. When my first ten students earned over 1,000 points, I brought in doughnuts for them to eat during class. Many of my students are working towards the power that gives them access to their notes during a test.  The key is that leveling up, badges, and points track mastery.  Students can even contribute to how they earn the points and suggest powers or privileges.  Gamification facilitates more responsibility on the part of the student to take charge of their learning.

Wheel of Destiny

Want to inject a bit of a lottery system or the selection process from the reaping in The Hunger Games, but with less deadly consequences? Utilize a Wheel of Destiny or Random Name Generator to select students to complete a mission or answer a question. Students will be sitting on the edge of their chairs, but the spontaneous, random events/selection gets everyone involved. Good games are not predictable. And as with all games so too in your classroom: predictable can quickly become all too boring. Keep students on their toes and engaged in the game with random selection and events.

Boss Battles

Transform assessments with Boss Battles. A “boss” in gaming is a villain who the hero must face and defeat to save the day. Think of the monster at the end of each level in the original Super Marios Bros. who must be defeated before moving to the next level.  The boss is the final challenge a player faces and utilizes his or her skills and abilities to defeat the boss. Boss Battles can be used as reviews or as a test. Check out how Mallory Kesson of Gamindex uses Boss Battles in her classroom by posting multiple choice questions on the SMARTBoard and giving students 30 seconds to select the correct answer. If the student answers incorrectly, the boss will attack. If a teammate has the correct answer, a student can dodge the attack, but if you miss, the entire team takes damage and loses points. When Boss Battles ask higher order thinking questions, students are “using critical thinking skills to plan and solve problems, and make informed decisions,”thus meeting ISTE Standard for Students #4, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making.

Teacher as Gamester

Gamification can be lots of fun for students and teachers alike. At the same time, gamification can help students build skills and confidence. In gamifying one’s class, the learning goals and objectives should be the guide. Think about how you will assess your students and help them meet the learning targets. Gamification privileges and powers have replaced extra credit in my classroom. As a reminder, homework in my class is not graded, but students earn Class Craft points. All tests, quizzes, and assessments that measure learning goals are uploaded onto Class Craft for additional points. Students are not penalized grade-wise if their work is late because they are graded based on the standards; however, in the game they deal with the damage of that lateness and can fall in battle. As the Gamemaster, one must be consistent and fair, adjust settings for different groups of students, and create flexible learning goals to meet the needs of all students. Effective Gamemasters “model and apply the ISTE Standards for Students as they design, implement, and assess learning experiences to engage students and improve learning.”

If you are considering implementing gamification into your classroom, check out Class Craft or read Michael Matera’s book, Explore Like a PIRATE: Gamification and Game-Inspired Course Design to Engage, Enrich and Elevate Your Learners. As the Gamemaster, you have the ability to transform your classroom with games, quests, and adventures that can inspire and empower student learners.

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Text Pairing for To Kill a Mockingbird

With the Common Core initiating a push for more informational text into the ELA classroom, teachers are always in search for rich informational texts for close reading.

With my eighth graders this year, I have adopted Kelly Gallager’s Article of the Week assignment. Each week my students are required to read, annotate, and write a one page reflection to show evidence of close reading and their thinking about the reading. I have compiled historical texts, primary documents, contemporary articles, and even some poetry for the Articles of the Week. Below is an annotated list of informational texts I assigned to my students to coincide with their understanding and reading of Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird.

Harper Lee Biography

FDR’s Inaugural Speech “The Only Thing We Have to Fear . . .”         Connect with the allusion mentioned in Chapters 1

Gender Codes in the 1930s: An Interview by Claudia Durst Johnson          This is an excerpt from a chapter in Using Informational Text with To Kill a Mockingbird by Audrey Fisch and Susan Chenelle (2011).

The Scottsboro Boys (PBS)

Yes, Black America Fears the Police. Here’s Why. by Nikole Hannah-Jones (ProPublica)

Deadly Force, In Black and White by Ryan Gabrielson, Ryann Grochowski Jones And Eric Sagara (ProPublica)

Blink Your Eyes by Sekou Sundiata

Fear Factor: How Herd Mentality Drives Us (CBS News) This is a great article to pair with the Mob Scene in Chapters 15 and 16.

Letter from Birmingham City Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr.

The Jury in TKAM: What Went Wrong by Judge Royal Ferguson

Harper Lee’s Failed Novel About Race (The New Yorker)

Do you have informative and engaging informational text pairings for To Kill a Mockingbird? Please share your ideas in the Comments section.




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Get Your Game On: Boost Content Area Learning with Gamification: ISTE Webinar

A follow up to my last blog post, here are the presentation slides for the webinar I lead for ISTE on 12/3/2015. To listen the the webinar Click Here.

List of resources mentioned in the webinar are below:

James Paul Gee’s article on Elements of Good Games to model as Educational Tools


Games for Change

Hour of Code

Michael Matera’s Entering the Realm of the Nobles

TED Talks About Gamification 

Education Arcade (MIT Scheller Teacher Education Program)



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From Jeopardy and the Amazing Race to Full on Gamification: Confessions of a Wannabe Gamer

I am by no means a gamer nerd but my evolution of the use of games in my classroom has gone from power point Jeopardy Games and Amazing Race QR Codes to a full on gaming platform, avatars,  Boss Battles, and strategizing  my lessons for student opportunities to level up.

On December 2, 2015 7:00 PM EST I will be leading a webinar for ISTE’s Professional Learning Series addressing gamification as a tool for classroom learning.

Get Your Game On: Boost Content Area Learning with Gamification

Gamification, the application of game playing, is all the rage in classrooms these days. There are numerous ways to bring games and game playing into your content area classroom that promote learning and deepen student understanding. Whether you are looking for engaging gaming tools like Kahoot! or are interested in introducing a game platform like Classcraft Games into your classroom, join this webinar to learn about what gamification looks and examples how teachers are using games in classrooms today, how you can implement a variety of games and game based learning into your classroom, and gain additional resources to level up your teaching.

Gaming offers so many positive opportunities for students and teachers alike to increase engagement, content learning, and problem based learning.

New to gaming, here are some tips and tricks to getting started:

  1. If you are using the Jeopardy templates to quiz your students knowledge of a subject matter and stir up some competition, try  Kahoot! or Quizizz. These two simple learning games allow you to create a quiz or survey for your class, students use their mobile devices to answer the questions, and shake up the traditional quiz or question and answer classroom practice.
  2. Minecraft Your Book Assessments (and more). Last year I had a student who was a big gamer, coder, and into Minecraft. After he read the Maze Runner he created the entire setting and plot of the book into a Minecraft game for his fellow students to play. Andrew Miller has a great blog post on Edutopia about other ways to use Minecraft in your classroom.
  3. Digital Badges & Reward motivate some. The Smithsonian Quests and Khan Academy offer digital badges for students who explore and complete online learning tasks designed by these two companies. For some students, this individualized learning offers inspiration and motivation.
  4. So, you want full on gaming? Classcraft is one gaming platform that offers free online, educational role-playing game that teachers and students play together in the classroom. Students can level up, work in teams, and earn powers that have real-world consequences. With Classcraft, the game runs passively in the background, collecting points and managing powers. — And those of you attending my webinar, I will be giving away one FREE PREMIUM subscription to Classcraft!!

Looking for more information about Gamification in the classroom, check out the following resources:

Edudemic’s 23 Best Game-Based Educational Resources of 2014

MindShifts Using Games for Learning

Best TED Talks About Gamification 

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